Publications

Recent References and Links to Papers

EVOSHEEP: THE MAKEUP OF SHEEP BREEDS IN THE ANCIENT NEAR EAST

February, 2021

Emmanuelle Vila et al, Antiquity , Volume 95 , Issue 379 , February 2021 , e2
DOI: https://doi.org/10.15184/aqy.2020.247

The EVOSHEEP project combines archaeozoology, geometric morphometrics and genetics to study archaeological sheep assemblages dating from the sixth to the first millennia BC in eastern Africa, the Levant, the Anatolian South Caucasus, the Iranian Plateau and Mesopotamia. The project aims to understand changes in the physical appearance and phenotypic characteristics of sheep and how these related to the appearance of new breeds and the demand for secondary products to supply the textile industry.

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SHEEP HUSBANDRY FROM THE SIXTH TO THE THIRD MILLENNIA BC IN THE NEAR EAST: A LAUNCHING PAD FOR THE MESOPOTAMIAN URBAN REVOLUTION ?

January, 2019

Vila, E. & Chahoud, J.. 2019. Sheep husbandry from the sixth to the third millennia BC in the Near East: a launching pad for the Mesopotamian urban revolution? in Gourichon, L., Daujeard, C. & Brugal, J.-P. (ed.) Humans and caprines: 203–23. Antibes: APDCA.

Abstract
The Near East is the cradle of sheep and goat domestication. It is also the first place where farming began to specialize in sheep husbandry from the Neolithic period onwards. This paper focuses on the evolution of husbandry and the contribution of caprines (sheep and goats) to the animal economy in Mesopotamia and the Levant, particularly from the Chalcolithic period to the Early Bronze Age. The increase in caprine breeding, especially sheep, is very significant from the Uruk period onwards in North Mesopotamia. The rise in the number of sheep was encouraged by the developing need for secondary products linked to the urbanization process. The control of sheep husbandry must have been fundamental for the implementation of the new economic and socio-cultural systems – urbanization, state-cities, empires – that developed at that time.
Keywords : Near East, Chalcolithic, Bronze Age, Sheep Husbandry, Urbanization

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References

ANIMAL PRODUCTS

  • Breniquet C. 2008, Essai sur le tissage  en Mésopotamie des premières communautés sédentaires au milieu du IIIe millénaire avant J.-C., Travaux de la Maison René-Ginouvès 5
, De Broccart, Paris.

  • Breniquet C. 2013, Functions and Uses of Textiles in the Ancient Near East. Summary and Perspectives, in M.-L. Nosch, H. Koefoed, E. Anderson-Strand (eds), Textile production and consumption in the Ancient Near East, Oxbow Books, Oxford-Oakville, 1-25.

  • Breniquet C., Michel C. (eds) 2014, Wool Economy in the Ancient Near East and the Aegean, Oxbow Books, Oxford.

  • Vigne J-D.,  Helmer D. 2007, Are the ‘secondary products’ all secondary, especially for the birth of Old world cattle and caprine domestication? Milk as a component of the neolithisation process, in Balasse M., Yacobaccio H., Vigne J-D., Helmer D. & Goepfert N. (eds), Herding Techniques, Anthropozoologica, 9-40.

  • Vila, E. & Chahoud, J.. 2019. Sheep husbandry from the sixth to the third millennia BC in the Near East: a launching pad for the Mesopotamian urban revolution? in Gourichon, L., Daujeard, C. & Brugal, J.-P. (ed.) Humans and caprines: 203–23. Antibes: APDCA.

 

ARCHAEOZOOLOGY & METHODS

  • Berthon R. 2011, Animal Exploitation in the Upper Tigris River Valley (Turkey) between the 3rd and the 1st millennia BC, PhD Kiel, CAU.

  • Berthon R. 2014, Past, Current and Future Contribution of Zooarchaeology to the Knowledge of the Neolithic and Chalcolithic Cultures in South Caucasus, Studies in Caucasian Archaeology 2, 4-30.

  • Chahoud J. 2013, Diversité faunique, économie alimentaire et pratiques socio-culturelles au Levant à l’âge du Bronze : Une approche archéozoologique, PhD Thesis Université Lyon 2/ Université Libanaise.

  • Chahoud J., Vila E. 2011, The role of animals in ancient Sidon: an overview of the ongoing zooarchaeological studies. Archaeology and History in Lebanon 34-35, 259-284. 

  • Gourichon L. 2004, Faune et saisonnalité. L’organisation temporelle des activités de subsistance dans l’Epipaléolithique et le Néolithique précéramique du Levant nord (Syrie). PhD Université Lumière-Lyon 2.

  • Helmer D. 1995, Biometria i arqueozoologia a partir d’alguns exemples del Proxim Orient. Cota Zero 11, 51-60. 

  • Helmer D. 2000, Discrimination des genres Ovis et Capra à l’aide des prémolaires inférieures 3 et 4 et interprétation des âges d’abattage; l’exemple de Dikili Tash (Grèce), Anthropozoologica 31/Ibex. Journal of Mountain Ecology 5, 29-38. 

  • Helmer D., Gourichon L., Monchot H., Peters J., Saña Segui M. 2005, Identifying early domestic cattle from the Pre-Pottery Neolithic sites on the Middle Euphrates using sexual dimorphism, in J.D. Vigne, J. Peters, D. Helmer (eds), New methods and the first steps of mammal domestication, Oxbow Books, Oxford, 86-94.

  • Helmer D., Gourichon L., Vila E. 2007, The development of the exploitation of products from Capra and Ovis (meat, milk and fleeces) from the PPNB to the Early Bronze in the northern Near East (8700 to 2000 BC cal.), Anthropozoologica 42/2, 41-69.

  • Mashkour M. 2001, Chasse et élevage du Néolithique à l'Age du Fer dans la plaine de Qazvin (Iran). Etude archéozoologique des sites de Zagheh, Qabrestan et Sagzabad, PhD Thesis Université Paris I-Sorbonne.

  • Mashkour M., Skorupka M. 2012, La morphologie des moutons et chèvres de Bithnah, in A. Benoist (ed.), La vallée de Bithnah (Fujairah, E.A.U.) au cours de l’âge du Fer, BAR / TOM publications, 393-399.

  • Mohaseb F.A. 2012, Exploitation des animaux durant l’Age du Bronze au début de la période Islamique dans le Nord ouest de l’Iran : étude archéozoologique de Haftavan Tepe, PhD University Panthéon, Sorbonne, Paris.

  • Monchot H., Mashkour M., Vigne J.-D. 2005, Kernel smoothing and mixture analysis for the determination of the sex ratios at death, at the beginning of domestication of ungulates, in J.-D. Vigne, J. Peters, D. Helmer (eds), First Steps of Animal Domestication: New Archaeozoological Approaches, Oxbow, Oxford, 55–60.

  • Vila E. 1998, L’exploitation des animaux dans le Nord de la Mésopotamie au IV et IIIe millénaire av. J.-C., CNRS.

  • Vila E. 2002, L´évolution de la taille du mouton dans le nord de la Mésopotamie : les faits et leurs causes, in L. Bodson (éd.), D’os, d’image et de mots. Univ. de Liège, 47-79.

  • Vila E. 2010, Etude de la faune mammalienne de Tell Chuera, secteur H et K (2000-2007) et de Kharab-Sayar, secteur A (Bronze ancien, Syrie), in J.-W. Meyer (ed.), Tell Chuera : Vorbericht zu den Grabungskampagnen 1998 bis 2005, Vorderasiatische Forschungen der Max Freiherr von Oppenheim-Stiftung 2, Harrassowitz V., Wiesbaden, 223-291.

  • Vila E., Gourichon L.  Choyke A., Buitenhuis H. (eds) 2008, Archaeozoology of the Near East VIII, MOM, Lyon.

 

ARCHAEOZOOLOGY & METHODS

  • Berthon R. 2011, Animal Exploitation in the Upper Tigris River Valley (Turkey) between the 3rd and the 1st millennia BC, PhD Kiel, CAU.

  • Berthon R. 2014, Past, Current and Future Contribution of Zooarchaeology to the Knowledge of the Neolithic and Chalcolithic Cultures in South Caucasus, Studies in Caucasian Archaeology 2, 4-30.

  • Chahoud J. 2013, Diversité faunique, économie alimentaire et pratiques socio-culturelles au Levant à l’âge du Bronze : Une approche archéozoologique, PhD Thesis Université Lyon 2/ Université Libanaise.

  • Chahoud J., Vila E. 2011, The role of animals in ancient Sidon: an overview of the ongoing zooarchaeological studies. Archaeology and History in Lebanon 34-35, 259-284. 

  • Gourichon L. 2004, Faune et saisonnalité. L’organisation temporelle des activités de subsistance dans l’Epipaléolithique et le Néolithique précéramique du Levant nord (Syrie). PhD Université Lumière-Lyon 2.

  • Helmer D. 1995, Biometria i arqueozoologia a partir d’alguns exemples del Proxim Orient. Cota Zero 11, 51-60. 

  • Helmer D. 2000, Discrimination des genres Ovis et Capra à l’aide des prémolaires inférieures 3 et 4 et interprétation des âges d’abattage; l’exemple de Dikili Tash (Grèce), Anthropozoologica 31/Ibex. Journal of Mountain Ecology 5, 29-38. 

  • Helmer D., Gourichon L., Monchot H., Peters J., Saña Segui M. 2005, Identifying early domestic cattle from the Pre-Pottery Neolithic sites on the Middle Euphrates using sexual dimorphism, in J.D. Vigne, J. Peters, D. Helmer (eds), New methods and the first steps of mammal domestication, Oxbow Books, Oxford, 86-94.

  • Helmer D., Gourichon L., Vila E. 2007, The development of the exploitation of products from Capra and Ovis (meat, milk and fleeces) from the PPNB to the Early Bronze in the northern Near East (8700 to 2000 BC cal.), Anthropozoologica 42/2, 41-69.

  • Mashkour M. 2001, Chasse et élevage du Néolithique à l'Age du Fer dans la plaine de Qazvin (Iran). Etude archéozoologique des sites de Zagheh, Qabrestan et Sagzabad, PhD Thesis Université Paris I-Sorbonne.

  • Mashkour M., Skorupka M. 2012, La morphologie des moutons et chèvres de Bithnah, in A. Benoist (ed.), La vallée de Bithnah (Fujairah, E.A.U.) au cours de l’âge du Fer, BAR / TOM publications, 393-399.

  • Mohaseb F.A. 2012, Exploitation des animaux durant l’Age du Bronze au début de la période Islamique dans le Nord ouest de l’Iran : étude archéozoologique de Haftavan Tepe, PhD University Panthéon, Sorbonne, Paris.

  • Monchot H., Mashkour M., Vigne J.-D. 2005, Kernel smoothing and mixture analysis for the determination of the sex ratios at death, at the beginning of domestication of ungulates, in J.-D. Vigne, J. Peters, D. Helmer (eds), First Steps of Animal Domestication: New Archaeozoological Approaches, Oxbow, Oxford, 55–60.

  • Vila E. 1998, L’exploitation des animaux dans le Nord de la Mésopotamie au IV et IIIe millénaire av. J.-C., CNRS.

  • Vila E. 2002, L´évolution de la taille du mouton dans le nord de la Mésopotamie : les faits et leurs causes, in L. Bodson (éd.), D’os, d’image et de mots. Univ. de Liège, 47-79.

  • Vila E. 2010, Etude de la faune mammalienne de Tell Chuera, secteur H et K (2000-2007) et de Kharab-Sayar, secteur A (Bronze ancien, Syrie), in J.-W. Meyer (ed.), Tell Chuera : Vorbericht zu den Grabungskampagnen 1998 bis 2005, Vorderasiatische Forschungen der Max Freiherr von Oppenheim-Stiftung 2, Harrassowitz V., Wiesbaden, 223-291.

  • Vila E., Gourichon L.  Choyke A., Buitenhuis H. (eds) 2008, Archaeozoology of the Near East VIII, MOM, Lyon.

 

DOMESTICATION

  • Bonte P., Brisebarre A. M., Helmer D., Sidi Maamar H. (eds) 2004, Domestications animales : dimensions sociales et symboliques, Hommage à Jacques Cauvin, Anthropozoologica 39.

  • Helmer D. 1991, La domestication des animaux par les hommes préhistoriques, Elsevier-Masson.

  • Helmer D. 1994, La domestication des animaux d’embouche dans le Levant Nord (Syrie du Nord et Sinjar) du milieu du IXe mill. BP à la fin du VIIIe mill. BP. Nouvelles données d’après les fouilles récentes, Anthropozoologica 20, 41-54. 

  • Lesur J. 2009, Origine et diffusion de l’élevage dans la Corne de l’Afrique, un état de la question, Ann.Ethiop.24, 

  • 173‑208.

  • Peters J., von den Driesch A., Helmer D. 2005, The upper Ephrates-Tigris basin: Cradle of agro-pastoralism? in J.‑D. Vigne, J. Peters, D. Helmer(eds), The first steps of animal domestication: New archaeological approaches, Oxbow, Oxford, 96-124.

  • Rognon X., Vila E., Verrier E, 2009, L'évolution des espèces animales suite à la domestication - conséquences pour les ressources génétiques, Comptes Rendus de l'Académie d'Agriculture de France 94, 13-24.

  • Vigne J.-D., Peters J. & Helmer D. (eds) 2005, The First Steps of Animal Domestication, Oxbow Books, Oxford.

  • Vigne J.-D. 2015. Early domestication and farming: what should we know or do for a better understanding? Anthropozoologica 50(2), 123-150.

  • Vigne J.-D., Balasse M., Gourichon L., Lesur J., Mashkour M., Tresset A., Vila E. 2011, Etat des connaissances archéozoologiques sur les débuts de l’élevage du mouton dans l’ancien monde, Ethnozootechnie 91, 11–19.

  • Zeder M.A. 2008, Animal domestication in the Zagros: an update and directions for future research, in E. Vila, L. Gourichon, A. Choyke, H. Buitenhuis (eds), Archaeozoology of the Near East VIII, MOM, Lyon, 243-278.

 

EPIGRAPHY

  • Abrahami P. 2014, Wool in the Nuzi textes in C. Breniquet & C. Michel C. (eds), Wool Economy in the Ancient Near East and the Aegean, Oxbow Books, Oxford, 283-309.

  • Abrahami P., Lion B. (eds) 2012, The Nuzi Workshop at the 55th Rencontre Assyriologique Internationale (July 2009, Paris), Studies on the Civilization and Culture of Nuzi and The Hurrians 19, Bethesda Maryland.

  • Biga M.G. 2014, Some aspects of wool economy at Ebla, in C. Breniquet, C. Michel (eds), Wool Economy in the Ancient Near East and the Aegean, Oxbow Books, Oxford, 139-150.

  • De Graef K. 2014, All Wool and a Yard Wide. Wool Production and Trade in Old Babylonian Sippar , in C. Breniquet, C. Michel (eds), Wool Economy in the Ancient Near East and the Aegean, Ancient Textiles Series 17, Oxford & Philadelphia, 202-231.

  • Michel C. 2008, The Old Assyrian Trade in the light of Recent Kultepe Archives, Journal of the Canadian Society for Mesopotamian Studies, 71-82. 

  • Michel. C. 2014, The Assyrian Textile Trade in Anatolia (19th century BCE): From Traded Goods to Prestigious Gifts, in K. Dross-Krüpe (ed.), Textile Trade and Distribution in Antiquity, Harrassowitz Verlag, Wiesbaden, 111-122. 

  • Michel C. 2015, Production and Trade in the Old Assyrian Period, Rivista di Storia Economica 1, 57-78.

  • Michel C. 2016, Estimating an Old Assyrian Household Textile Production with the Help of Experimental Archaeology: Feasibility and Limitations, in C. Ebert, M. Harlow, E. Andersson Strand, L. Bjerregaard (eds), Traditional Textile Craft – an Intangible Cultural Heritage? Copenhagen, 125-136.

  • Michel C. & Veenhof K. R. 2010, The Textiles traded by the Assyrians in Anatolia (19th-18th Centuries BC), in C. Michel & M.-L. Nosch (eds),Textile Terminologies in the Ancient Near East and Mediterranean from the Third to the First millennia BC, Oxbow, Oxford, 209–269.

  • Sallaberger W. 2014, The Value of Wool in Early Bronze Age Mesopotamia. On the Control of Sheep and the Handling of Wool in the Presargonic to the Ur III Periods (c. 2400–2000 BC), in C. Breniquet, C. Michel (eds), Wool Economy in the Ancient Near East and the Aegean, Oxbow Books, Oxford, 94-114.

 

ICONOGRAPHY

  • Firth R. 2014, Textile Texts of the Lagas II Period, in M. Harlow, C. Michel, M.-L. Nosch (eds), Prehistoric, Ancient Near Eastern and Aegean Textiles and Dress, Ancient Textiles Series 187, Oxbow Books, Oxford-Philadelphia, 57-73.

  • Helmer D., Gourichon L. Stordeur D. 2004, à l’aube de la domestication animale. Imaginaire et symbolisme animal dans les premières sociétés néolithiques du nord du Proche-Orient, in P. Bonte, A. M. Brisebarre, D. Helmer, H. Sidi Maamar (eds), Domestications animales : dimensions sociales et symboliques, Anthropozoologica 39 (1), 143-163.

  • Vila E., Helmer D. 2014, The expansion of sheep herding and the development of wool production in the ancient Near East: An archaeozoological and iconographical approach, in C. Breniquet et C. Michel (eds), Wool economy in the ancient Near East and the Aegean, Oxbow Books, 22-40.

 

MORPHOMETRIC GEOMETRICS

  • Clavel J., Escarguel G., Merceron G. 2015, mvMORPH: an R package for fitting multivariate evolutionary models to morphometric data. Methods in Ecology and Evolution 6(11), 1311-1319.

  • Clavel J., Merceron G., Escarguel G. 2014, Missing data estimation in morphometrics: How much is too much? Systematic Biology 63(2), 203-218.

  • Clavel J., Merceron G., Hristova L., Spassov N., Kovachev D., Escarguel G. 2012, On Mesopithecus habitat: insights from late Miocene fossil vertebrate localities of Bulgaria, Journal of Human Evolution 63(1), 162-179.

  • Cucchi T., Vigne J.-D., Auffray J.-C., Croft P., Peltenburg E. 2002, Passive transport of the house mouse (Mus musculus domesticus) to Cyprus at the Early Preceramic Neolithic (Late 9th and 8th Mill. cal. BC), CRAS, Palevol 1, 235–241.

  • Cucchi T., Hulme-Beaman A., Yuan J., Dobney K. 2011, Early Neolithic pig domestication at Jiahu, Henan Province, China: Clues from molar shape analyses using geometric morphometric approaches, J. of Archaeological Science 38, 11-22.

  • Cucchi T., Dai L., Balasse M., Zhao C., Gao J., Hu Y., Yuan J., Vigne J.-D. 2016, Social Complexification and Pig ( Sus scrofa ) Husbandry in Ancient China: A Combined Geometric Morphometric and Isotopic Approach, PLOS ONE 11, e0158523. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0158523.

  • Cucchi T., Baylac M., Evin A., Bignon-Lau O., Vigne J.-D. 2015, Morphométrie géométrique et archéozoologie : Concepts, méthodes et applications, in M. Balasse, J.-P. Brugal, Y. Dauphin, E.-M. Geigh, C. Oberlin, I. Reiche (eds), Messages d’os Archéométrie du squelette animal et humain, Editions des Archives Contemporaines , Paris, 197–216.

  • Cucchi T., Mohaseb A., Peigné S., Debue K., Orlando L., Mashkour M. accepted mars 2017, Detecting taxonomic and phylogenetic signals in equid cheek teeth: towards new paleontological and archaeological proxies, Royal Society Open Science.

  • Escarguel G. 2012, Appendix A. Statistical Analysis of Simpson’s Log-ratios, in P. Missiaen, G. Escarguel, J.‑L.Hartenberger, T. Smith, A Large New Collection of Palaeostylops from the Paleocene of the Flaming Clis Area (Ulan-Nur Basin, Gobi Desert, Mongolia), and an Evaluation of the Phylogenetic A nities of Arctostylopidae (Mammalia, Gliriformes), Geobios 45/3, 311-322. Supplementary materials 24.

  • Evin A., Cucchi T., Cardini A., Vidarsdottir U.S. et al. 2013, The long and winding road: identifying pig domestication through molar size and shape, J. of Archaeological Science 40, 735-743.

  • Evin A., Cucchi T., Escarguel G., Owen J., Larson G., Vidarsdottir U.S., Dobney K. 2014. Using traditional biometrical data to distinguish West Palearctic wild boar and domestic pigs in the archaeological record: New methods and standards, J. of Archaeological Science 43, 1-8.

  • Missiean P., Escarguel G., Hartenberger J.-L., Smith T. 2012, A large new collection of Palaeostylops from the Paleocene of the Flaming Cliffs area (Ulan-Nur Basin, Gobi Desert, Mongolia), and an evaluation of the phylogenetic affinities of Arctostylopidae (Mammalia, Gliriformes), Geobios45(3), 311-322.

  • Vuillien M., Sorin S., Gourichon L. 2017, Morphométrie géométrique et 3D : Premières analyses des morphotypes ovins et caprins, ArchéOrient - Le Blog, 6 janvier 2017, [En ligne] http://archeorient.hypotheses.org/6985

 

GENETICS

  • Broushaki F., Thomas M.G., Link V., [+ 21 authors], Bradley D.G., Shennan S., Veeramah K.R., Mashkour M., Wegmann D., Hellenthal G., Burger J. 2016, Early Neolithic genomes from the eastern Fertile Crescent, Science, 2016 Jul 29;353(6298), 499-503.

  • Chen H., Patterson N., Reich D. 2010, Population differentiation as a test for selective sweeps, Genome Research 20, 393–402. 

  • Cruz-Dávalos D.I., Llamas B., Gaunitz C., Fages A., [+ 12 authors], Willerslev E., Orlando L. 2016, Experimental conditions improving in-solution target enrichment for ancient DNA, Mol Ecol Resour. 2016 Aug 27. doi: 10.1111/1755-0998.12595.

  • Damgaard P.B., Margaryan A., Schroeder H., Orlando L., Willerslev E., Allentoft M.E., 2015, Improving access to endogenous DNA in ancient bones and teeth, Sci. Rep., Jun 17;5:11184. doi: 10.1038/srep11184.

  • Gamba C., Hanghøj K., Gaunitz C., Alfarhan A.H., Alquraishi S.A., Al-Rasheid K.A., Bradley D.G., Orlando L. 2016, Comparing the performance of three ancient DNA extraction methods for high-throughput sequencing, Mol Ecol Resour. Mar;16(2), 459-69.  doi: 10.1111/1755-0998.12470. Epub 2015 Oct 15.

  • Gamba C., Hanghøj K., Gaunitz C., Alfarhan A.H., Alquraishi S.A., Al-Rasheid K.A., Bradley D.G., Orlando L. 2016, Comparing the performance of three ancient DNA extraction methods for high-throughput sequencing, Molecular Ecology Resources 2016 Mar; 16(2), 459-469.

  • Hofmanová Z., Kreutzer S., Hellenthal G., [+ 29 authors], Bradley D.G., Currat M., Veeramah K.R., Wegmann D., Thomas M.G., Papageorgopoulou C., Burger J. 2016, Early farmers from across Europe directly descended from Neolithic Aegeans, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, Jun 21;113(25):6886-91. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1523951113.

  • Hollund H. I., Teasdale M. D., Mattiangeli V., Sverrisdottir O.Ó., Bradley D.G., O’Connor T. 2016, Pick the Right Pocket. Sub-sampling of Bone Sections to Investigate Diagenesis and DNA Preservation, International Journal of Osteoarchaeology DOI: 10.1002/oa.2544 

  • Jónsson H., Ginolhac A., Schubert M., Johnson P.L., Orlando L. 2013, MapDamage2.0: fast approximate Bayesian estimates of ancient DNA damage parameters, Bioinformatics. 2013 Jul 1;29(13):1682-4. doi: 10.1093/bioinformatics/btt193. 

  • Louvel G., Der Sarkissian C., Hanghoj K., Orlando L. 2016, metaBIT, an integrative and automated metagenomic pipeline for analyzing microbial profiles from high-throughput sequencing shotgun data, Molecular Ecology Resources May 2016. DOI: 10.1111/1755-0998.12546

  • Orlando L. et al. 2013, Recalibrating Equus evolution using the genome sequence of an early Middle Pleistocene horse, Nature 2013 Jul 4 ; 499(7456), 74-8.

  • Orlando L., Willerslev E. 2014, An epigenetic window into the past? Science 345, 511DOI: 10.1126/science.1256515 

  • Orlando L. Gilbert M., Willerslev E. 2015, Reconstructing ancient genomes and epigenomes, Nature Reviews Genetics 16, 395–408

  • Orlando L. 2014, Characterization of ancient and modern genomes by SNP detection and phylogenomic and metagenomic analysis using PALEOMIX, Nat Protoc. 2014 May;9(5), 1056-82. doi: 10.1038/nprot.2014.063.